There are wide arrays of problems that affect the anal canal:-symptoms of which might include disorders either in the form of pain, redness, itchiness, loss of blood or lumps.
Haemorrhoids or piles are the most common condition of the anus, often unknown to the sufferer unless they experience any discomfort. Haemorrhoids are formed when the blood vessels in and around the anal and lower rectal regions enlarge during defecation, accompanied by blood in stool. Piles are either external or internal in origin. There are lumps called prolapsed haemorrhoids that protrude out while passing stool and can be forced inside the canal. There are also the other types of lumps, which are so painful that cannot be pushed back inside. Piles are caused due to various factors like constant constipation, age, difficulty in emptying the bowels, straining the rectal and anal muscles and pregnancy. Rubber band ligation, haemorrhoidectomy and recently the stapler gun surgery are effective interventions to treat larger lumps. The simplest remedy is to have a healthy diet rich in fibre and increase the intake of fluids to ease constipation and minimize the risk of piles.
A sudden lump is noticed at the edge of anal canal as a result of damaged blood vessels mostly after defecation resulting in the formation of a haematoma. Once the blood drains out of the clot the condition wanes off without any treatment. Sitz bath and pain killers are helpful to relieve the discomfort. If the uneasiness persists for weeks and pain is unbearable, an outpatient procedure can be performed under anaesthesia, making an incision at the haematoma to clear the clogged blood and reduce pain.
A perianal abscess is a clear indication of bacterial infection in the anal passage with an excruciating pain followed by fever and unrest, – caused due to blockage in the anal gland. This condition is common among diabetics and patients suffering from Crohn’s disease, since their immunity levels are low. Perianal abscess is quite painful and needs immediate treatment to drain out the pus through an incision. Patients who had undergone treatment for abscess might eventually develop a fistula in case the infected cavity was large.
Anal Disorders: Colorectal-surgeon.com
Anal fistula is an abnormal tract formed inside the anal passage with an opening outside the body; one of the causes is a cavity from previous abscess. An infected fistula has pus constantly oozing from it, along with redness and irritation in that region. Surgically the tract is unroofed, creating an open groove for the fistula to heal on its own. Fistula plugs and fibrin glue are other options to treat the condition.
Chronic constipation, frequent diarrhoea, excessive strain while passing stools and sexually transmitted diseases lead to the wear-and-tear of the anal tissue lining causing ulceration. Anal ulcers are painful, itchy and filled with blood and become sore with time. Most of the fissures heal by themselves. However, ointments and topical creams are helpful in reducing the itchiness and pain by normalising obstructed blood flow to that part. In extreme cases, anal sphincterotomy is performed by surgeons.
Quite embarassing to disclose yet one of the most agressive types of cancer, anal cancer goes undetected at an early stage. Anal cancer is overlooked due to taboo associated and because of its site of growth. Formed in the squamous cells of the rectal region as a result of uncotrolled growth, the common signs of anal cancer can be easily confused with haemorrhoids. But a typical symptom is that a cancerous lump is unusually hard causing some fluidy discharge from the anus. Age, smoking, warts and previous infections are possible risk factors. The mainstay after diagnostic MRI and CT scan of the anal canal is combined use of radio and chemotherapy.
At Koya Stopiles in Hyderabad and now in Bangalore, anal disorders are treated frequently by expert and skilled clinicians and doctors. Lifestyle and dietary advices are also given to ward off future ano-rectal complications such as haemorrhoids, fissures and fistulas.