Colon Complications Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD)
Inflammatory bowel movements or inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are a group of idiopathic diseases of the small and large intestines occurring due to chronic inflammation and deregulated immune conditions of the digestive tract. IBDs are diagnosed in adolescence but can affect people of all age groups. One in every 250 persons reportedly suffers from some form of IBD. IBDs are mainly sub-divided into ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. There are lesser known and rarer forms of IBDs namely collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis. Sometimes, due to conflicting symptoms and ulcerous sections in various parts it is difficult to differentiate between different types of IBDs in which case the disease is named indeterminate colitis.
Ulcerative Colitis :
Long term inflammation of the innermost colorectal lining results in formation of pus filled sores called ulcers. Chronic inflammation and ulceration create extreme abdominal discomfort and frequent urge to empty the bowels. The immune system is compromised wherein the body’s immune cells confuse the food particles as foreign objects and invade the wall of the colon and rectum instantly, causing inflammation and sores. 20% of reported cases have an acute form of ulcerative colitis. The disease is more common among the Jewish and European races.
Types of IBDs: Athersys Inc.,
Crohn’s Disease :
Deeper inflammation of the large and small intestines occurs in Crohn’s disease. As a result, various parts of the intestines develop inflammation and ulcers that grow with time and invade the deeper tissue linings of the digestive tract. Crohn’s disease is not confined to the intestines, but can also start anywhere from the oesophagus to the anal canal in the gastrointestinal tract, thus making it more invasive than ulcerative colitis. In certain cases, a person feels extremely painful, fatigued and debilitated, often progressing to fatal complications like colorectal cancer.
The exact reasons of IBDs are not clear, however, there are several factors that play a role in manifestation of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Major factors that might cause IBDs are the following:
- Genetically inherited from close relatives who had IBD
- Auto-immunity – when the immune system is disrupted while defending against viral or bacterial infections in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby causing chronic inflammation and ulcers to appear
Multiple symptoms are associated with colon complications, depending on which specific parts of the gut the inflammation and infection take place in. Some of the common symptoms are:
- Recurring diarrhoea or vomiting
- Severe abdominal cramping (which might at times be mistaken for appendicitis)
- Mucous and blood in stools
- Enormous weight loss in a short span due to reduced appetite, diarrhoea and mal-absorption
- Fissures and rectal abscesses
- Pain in the anal region
- Impaired eye sight and pain
- Arthritis, liver problems, uveitis
- Skin rashes, fatigue, anaemia and fever
Current Treatment :
Mild signs of IBD do not need any clinical attention as the problem clears off after a while. There are no curative medications for IBDs, mostly drugs are given to relieve the symptoms. Aminosalicylates or corticosteroids are given to minimize inflammation. Immunosuppressants are prescribed to reduce immune activity. Patients with extreme ulcerative colitis fail to respond to medications, and a possible solution is surgical removal of the ulcer portion of the colon. In case of Crohn’s disease over 70% of cases need surgery to repair the damaged sections of the gastrointestinal tract. Doctors also advise on lifestyle changes by avoiding pungent, oily and heavy diets, minimizing alcohol consumption, apart from exercising to curtail recurrence.
Koya Stopiles™ in Hyderabad, and now in Bangalore, is a clinic specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of various gastrointestinal problems. The team of doctors and surgeons at the facility have extensive experience in treating various intestine-related conditions, aided also by experts who monitor the cases from other countries. The treatment techniques used are latest US-FDA approved, minimally invasive and designed specifically to suit a patient’s need, lifestyle and symptoms. Patients visiting the clinic are successfully treated for their conditions like fistulas and abscesses that maybe caused due to IBDs, thus providing relief from the ano-rectal symptoms of the disease.